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宋代的民田典卖与“一田两主制”
作者:戴建国    时间:2011-12-28
中文摘要:
  宋代土地所有权与土地使用权权能普遍分离。在典田情形下,同一块土地出现了拥有田根的出典主和拥有土地使用权的承典主,形成了事实上的“一田两主制”。当一块民田存在多个典买人时,典买人购买土地所有权的顺序是按承典到土地的先后排列的。典买人除了转典之外,还可断卖已典土地,其断卖的,除了土地的使用权,还连带着田根的优先购买权。业主如将田根出卖给第三方,原先的典卖关系并不因业主的更换而失效。宋代国家赋税和户口登记制度视田产的出典为财产转移,剥离了使用权权能后所剩田根在“业”的观念上被虚化了,并不作为财产来登记。国家的户口制度实行的是一田一主制。这种“一元制”的产权形态与流通领域存在的“一田两主制”形态不同,它的产生乃是国家从降低社会管理成本出发,行使财税和行政管理职能的结果。典卖方式及其典卖机制的成熟完善促进了土地和商品经济的流通,对后世社会产生了深远影响。 关键词:宋代 民田典卖 一田两主 田根 主客户
英文摘要:
  In the Song dynasty, the separation of land ownership and land use rights was a common phenomenon. In the case of a mortgage, there existed de facto two owners of the same piece of land: the owner of the land, i.e., the mortgager, and the owner of the land use rights, i.e., the mortgagee, forming a de facto “one land two owners” system. If there were more than one mortgagees for the same piece of private land, then when the land ownership was sold, the order of priority for its purchase was based on the chronological sequence of the mortgages. Apart from remortgaging the land, the mortgagee could also sell off the land use rights along with the preemptive right to buy the land ownership. If the owner sold the ownership of the land to a third party, the original mortgage relationship would not be invalidated by the change of the ownership. According to the Song system of levies and household registration, land that had been mortgaged was regarded as property that had been transferred, so once the rights to use the land had been lost, it was only nominally “property” and was not registered as such. In terms of household registration, the government implemented a “one piece of land one owner” system. Unlike the “one land two owners” system used in the circulation of land, the oneownership form owed its adoption to the exercise of fiscal and administrative functions aimed at reducing the cost of social management to the government. The maturing and perfecting of means of and mechanisms for land mortgage and sale promoted the circulation of land and also of the commodity economy, with a profound influence on later social development.
 
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