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明代庶吉士群体构成及其特点
作者:郭培贵    时间:2011-12-28
中文摘要:
  庶吉士是明代出现的一个仅次于一甲进士的高科名群体,成为阁臣等高级官员的主要来源之一。依其产生方式和任务等不同,大致可分为六类。其中,经“考选”产生的“进学”类是其主体。庶吉士地域和户类来源都十分广泛;且具有很高的社会流动率,82.48%的庶吉士出自非进士家族,而出自进士家族的庶吉士又以一代进士家族为主,庶吉士家族绝无超过三代者。庶吉士考选成为明廷吸纳各阶层、各地区尤其是北方、西北、西南地区和其他边远省份人才进入统治高层的最主要通道,不仅对统治高层实现不同特点人才的优势互补具有重要意义;而且对增强朝廷凝聚力、稳定社会和巩固统一,发挥了不可替代的重要作用。 关键词:庶吉士 分甲 地域 出身 户类
英文摘要:
  The shujishi (庶吉士 Hanlin Bachelors) of the Ming Dynasty were a group of successful candidates in the highest imperial examination (next only to jinshi) who constituted one of the sources of high-ranking officials such as cabinet members. The group can basically be divided into six classes according to their method of selection and duties. Among them, those selected by examination constituted the main body. The origins of shujishi both in terms of region and family background were very diverse and the group had a high rate of social mobility. 82-48% were from non-jinshi families, and those who were from jinshi families were usually the first generation. No shujishi families were maintained for more than three generations. Shujishi selection and examination became the main channel by which the Ming imperial court absorbed into high office talent from all walks of life and all regions, especially the north, northwest and southwest, as well as other remote provinces. The group was not only important in enabling the ruling class to achieve complementarity among talented recruits with different strengths, but also played an irreplaceable role in enhancing the Ming court’s cohesion and social stability and consolidate its unity.
 
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