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希腊化还是印度化——“Yavanas”考
作者:杨巨平    时间:2011-12-28
中文摘要:
   Yavanas是指公元以前的印度—希腊人。Yavanas自波斯帝国时期即为印度人所知。他们在印度的大规模出现是在亚历山大时代。亚历山大之后,一部分希腊人滞留印度,阿育王一度向他们宣扬佛法。公元前2世纪以后,巴克特里亚希腊人大举入印,在印度西北部建立了长达两个世纪之久的统治,并在全盛时向恒河流域扩张。由于长期孤悬印度,Yavanas在竭力坚持自己文化传统的同时,也出于统治的需要开始了自身的印度化进程。他们铸造希印双语币,接受印度的神祇,信仰佛法,最终推动了犍陀罗艺术的诞生。Yavanas在印度的消失并非印度人的胜利,而是希印两种文明合二为一的必然结果。Yavanas的历史既是希腊化文明的一个特殊组成部分,也是南亚次大陆古代历史的一部分。 关键词: Yavanas 亚历山大 巴克特里亚 米南德 印度化
英文摘要:
  Yavanas refers to preChristian IndoHellenes. As early as the Persian Empire, Yavanas had been known to the Indians. They appeared in India in a large number at the time of Alexander the Great. Thereafter, some Greeks remained in India and were converted to Buddhism by King Asoka. After the second century BC, Bactrian Greeks entered India in large numbers and established their rule in northwestern India for two centuries, even expanding at their peak to the Ganges River. Due to their long isolation in India, while struggling to adhere to their own cultural traditions, Yavanas also began a process of Indianization arising from the need to maintain their rule. They minted bilingual coins, accepted Indian gods and Buddhism, and ultimately contributed to the birth of the art of Gandhara. The disappearance of Yavanas in India was not the result of an Indian victory, but was an inevitable result of convergence of Greek and Indian civilizations. The history of Yavanas is both a special part of the civilization of Hellenization and a part of the ancient history of the subcontinent of South Asia.
 
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