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“六根互用”与宋代文人的生活、审美及文学表现——兼论其对“通感”的影响
作者:周裕锴    时间:2011-12-13
中文摘要:
  大乘佛教诸经尤其是《楞严经》中“六根互用”的观念,在北宋中叶以后士大夫习禅的背景下,逐渐向日常生活和审美活动方面渗透。以苏轼、黄庭坚、惠洪等人为代表,从个人修道体验出发,追求六根通透、一心湛然无染的境界。由此带来三个变化:一是有意混同眼、耳、鼻、舌、身等感官之间的界限,尤其是主张眼听、耳观、目诵,从而形成听觉艺术(诗)与视觉艺术(画)相通的全新意识。二是将六根所接触的现象世界升华为心灵境界,将吟诗、作画、焚香、品茶、赏花、尝食诸多活动当作参禅悟道的途径或方式,从而出现诗禅、画禅、香禅、茶禅等宗教精神渗入世俗生活的现象。三是文学创作和理论中的“通感”书写,因“六根互用”的启示而由生理学、心理学层面的自发经验转向哲学、宗教学层面的自觉意识。这三个变化与宋代士大夫的“居士化”分不开。
英文摘要:
  The idea found in the Mahayana scriptures, particularly the Shurangama Sutra, that “the six sense organs can be functionally exchangeable”, gradually spread into the daily life and aesthetic activities of the late Northern Song when scholar officials generally practiced Buddhist meditation. Based on their personal experience in the cultivation of Tao, scholargentry represented by Su Shi, Huang Tingjian and Hui Neng pursued a state that is free from human perceptions, desires and passions, which gave rise to three changes. First, they intentionally blurred the dividing line between sense organs like the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue and the body, and advocated listening and reciting with the eyes and seeing with the ears, giving rise to a new awareness of the close interlinking of the aural and visual arts. Second, the phenomenal world perceived by the six organs was sublimated to a spiritual realm, and poetry, painting, burning incense, tasting tea and admiring food and flowers were all regarded as means of meditation and cultivating the Tao. As a result, their religious spirit permeated into temporal life, manifesting itself in the Chan of poetry, painting, incense, and tea. Lastly, thanks to the idea that “the six sense organs can be functionally exchangeable,” the synaesthesia of literary writing and theory was transformed from a spontaneous physiological and psychological experience to a philosophical and religious consciousness. These three changes are closely related to the Buddhist beliefs of Song scholarofficials.
 
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